Українська English


Komarytsia Mariana

A bridge over Zbruch: Great Unity in the press of  Ukrainian People’s Republic


In the article we analyze the press publications that covered the process of realizing the idea of consolidation and its theoretical reasoning in the journals of 1918—1919 in UNR and Ukrainian State. The subject of the research is newspaper materials of such press editions as «Nova Rada» (Kyiv, 1917—1919), «Kozatska Dumka» (Berdychiv, 1917), «Vidrodzennia» (Kiev, 1918), «Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky » (Kyiv, Vinnytsia, Kamianets-Podilsky, 1918—1919), «Respublikanski Visty» (Vinnytsia, 1918—1919), «Respublikanski Visty» (Kharkiv, 1918), «Zhyttia Podillia» (Kamianets-Podilsky, 1918—1919), «Kievskii Kommunist» (1918—1919) and others.

Analysis of publications about consolidation reveals a wide range of factors that influenced the Act of Union on January 22, 1919 — historical, mental, ideological, political and informational. At the same time it reveals the inconsistency policy of the leaders of the Ukrainian Central Rada, in particular Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, of promoting the idea of the federation (which was de facto in opposition to the idea of consolidation). We have made comparative parallels of understanding the process of unification among Galician and Dnieper Ukrainians, taking into account the fact of the presence of Ukrainian lands within different empires — Russian and Austro-Hungarian, related to this fact internal contradictions among the Ukrainian political elite, open armed aggression against Ukraine.

The repressions of the Russian authorities led to the destruction of the nationally-oriented Ukrainian political elite, whose numerous representatives did not know their native language. Additionally, the influence of socialist ideology caused the priority of social demands against national ones. Representatives of the Galicians, released after the revolution from the Siberian camps, have joined the government, administrative and educational institutions of Ukraine. The opponents of consolidation were the Bolsheviks, who saw the prospects of unification only under the red flag. In the journals were published texts of documents, described the process of the celebration on January 22, 1919, abstracts of V. Vynnychenko`s, S. Petliura`s, L. Tsehelsky`s and V. Olesnitsky`s speeches, published mottos for the necessity of the unity of the nation.

Keywords: consolidation, Act of Union, federation, UNR, ZUNR, ukrainian press of 1918—1919.

Full text


1. A. B. (1919). Samostiinist Ukrainy yak moralno-pravnyi probliem [Independence of Ukraine as a Moral and Legal Problem], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky, Vynnytsia, no. 6, 12 liut., s. 3. (in Ukr.).
2. Boiko, O. (2019). Hetman ta yednist ukrainskykh zemel: rik 1918-y [Hetman and the Unity of the Ukrainian Lands: Year 1918]. Kviten 2. Retrieved from (in Ukr.).
3. (1918). Bolshovyky y Ukraina [The Bolsheviks and Ukraine], Ostrizhska Narodnia Hazeta, no. 1, 29 hrud., s. 3. (in Ukr.).
4. Voinarovskyi, A. (1918). Ne z toho kintsia [Not from that End], Vidrodzhennia, no. 189, 20 lystop., s. 2. (in Ukr.).
5. (1919). Halytski spravy [Galician Affairs], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky, no. 13, 9 lyp., s. 2. (in Ukr.).
6. Hoshuliak, I. (2009). Ternystyi shliakh do sobornosti (vid idei do Aktu Zluky) [The Thorny Road to Сonsolidation (from the Іdea to Act of Unity)]: monohrafiia, IPiEND imeni I. F. Kurasa NAN Ukrainy, Kyiv, 468 s. (in Ukr.).
7. (1917). Dizhdalys svoho sviata [We have already Awaited for our own Holiday], Kozatska Dumka, Berdychiv, no. 2, 19 lystop., s. 2. (in Ukr.).
8. (1918). Do borotby [To the Struggle], Respublikanski Visty, Kharkiv, no. 8, 18 hrud., s. 2—3. (in Ukr.).
9. (1919). Do halytsko-prydniprianskykh vidnosyn [To Relations between Galicia and Dniper Ukraine], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky, no. 16, 15 lyp., s. 1. (in Ukr.).
10. (1918). Do yednannia [To Unification], Nova Rada, no. 244, 28 hrud., s. 1. (in Ukr.).
11. (1919). Do kozakiv i selian. Choho idut do nas Ukrainski Sichovi Striltsi? [To the Cossacks and the Peasants. Why Ukrainian Sich Shooters are Coming
to us?], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky, no. 5, 10 liut., s. 4. (in Ukr.).
12. (1936). Do probliemy: M. Drahomanov i suchasnist [To a Problem: M. Drahomanov and the Modernity], Meta, no. 5, 9 liut., s. 4. (in Ukr.).
13. (1919). Yedinyi front [The Single Front], Kievskii Kommunist, no. 19, 14 fevr., s. 1. (in Rus.).
14. Yevshan, M. (1919). Ukrainski kordony [The Ukrainian Borders], Narod, no. 14, 3 maia, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
15. Zavalniuk, O. (2019). Ukrainska presa pro peredumovy i pryiniattia akta Zluky mizh UNR i ZUNR, 100-richchia Zluky UNR ta ZUNR [Ukrainian Press about the Prerequisites and Adoption of the Act of Unity between UNR and ZUNR]: zb. materialiv naukovoho kruhloho stolu. Kamianets-Podilskyi, 42 s. (in Ukr.).
16. (1919). Znushchannia poliakiv nad ukraintsiamy v Halychyni [Bullying of Poles over Ukrainians in Galicia], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky,
no. 17, 16 лип. s. 1. (in Ukr.).
17. K. M. (1919). Obiednannia Ukrainy [Unification of Ukraine], Respublikanski Visty, Vinnytsia, no. 41, 23 sich., s. 1. (in Ukr.).
18. (1919). Kamianets na Podilliu, 1-ho liutoho 1919 roku [Kamianets in Podolia, February 1, 1919], Zhyttia Podillia, no. 23, 1 лют. s. 2. (in Ukr.).
19. (1918). Kyiv, 2 chervnia 1918 roku [Kyiv, June 2, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 53, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
20. (1918). Kyiv, 9 zhovtnia 1918 roku [Kyiv, October 9, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 155, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
21. (1918). Kyiv, 11 zhovtnia 1918 roku [Kyiv, October 11, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 157, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
22. (1918). Kyiv, 12 zhovtnia 1918 roku [Kyiv, October 12, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 158, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
23. (1918). Kyiv, 16 zhovtnia 1918 roku [Kyiv, October 16, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 160, s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
24. (1918). Kyiv, 26 zhovtnia 1918 r. [Kyiv, October 26, 1918], Vidrodzhennia, no. 169, s. 2. (in Ukr.).
25. Kushnir, M. (1918). Halychyna y Kholmshchyna ta Beresteiska umova [The Galicia and the Chełm Land and the Brest’s Treaty], Nova Rada, no. 148, 24 serp., s. 1. (in Ukr.).
26. Mamchur, D. (1919). Samostiinist chy federatsiia [Independence or Federation], Selianska Dumka, Berdychiv, no. 29, 29 veres., s. 1—2. (in Ukr.).
27. O. Kh-k. (1918). Stanovyshche v Halychyni [The Situation in Galicia], Vidrodzhennia, Kyiv, no. 220, 27 hrud., s. 3. (in Ukr.).
28. (1919). Obiednannia [Unity], Vistnyk Ukrainskoi Narodnoi Respubliky, no. 19, 18 лип., s. 2. (in Ukr.).
29. [Plevako, M.]. (1918). Halychyna, Kholmshchyna i my [Galicia, Chełm Land and We], Vidrodzhennia, 23 serp., no. 119, s. 1—2, рidp.: M. Pokhmu ryi. (in Ukr.).
30. T. (1917). Halytski ukraintsi [Galician Ukrainians], Kozatska Dumka, Berdychiv, no. 4, 1 hrud., s. 3. (in Ukr.).
31. Khomyk, A. (1918). Zluka ukrainskykh zemel [Unity of the Ukrainian Lands], Vidrodzhennia, no. 221, 28 hrud., s. 1. (in Ukr.).