Українська English

Danylo Kravets, Scientific Fellow of Manuscripts Department, Vasyl Stefanyk National Scientific Library of Ukraine in Lviv, Candidate of historical sciences

Functioning of Ukrainian Bureau in Washington D. C. (March 1939 – May 1940)

Abstract:

The aim of the Ukrainian Bureau in Washington was propaganda of Ukrainian question among US government and American publicity in general. Functioning of the Bureau is not represented non in Ukrainian neither in foreign historiographies, so that’s why the main goal of presented paper is to investigate its activity. The research is based on personal papers of Ukrainian diaspora representatives (O. Granovskyi, E. Skotzko, E. Onatskyi) and articles from American and Ukrainian newspapers.

The second mass immigration of Ukrainians to the US (1914‒1930s) has often been called the «military» immigration and what it lacked in numbers, it made up in quality. Most immigrants were educated, some with college degrees. The founder of the Ukrainian Bureau Eugene Skotzko was born near Western Ukrainian town of Zoloczhiv and immigrated to the United States in late 1920s after graduating from Lviv Polytechnic University. In New York he began to collaborate with OUN member O. Senyk-Hrabivskyi who gave E. Skotzko task to create informational bureau for propaganda of Ukrainian case. On March 23 1939 the Bureau was founded in Washington D. C. E. Skotzko was an editor of its Informational Bulletins. The Bureau biggest problem was lack of financial support. It was the main reason why it stopped functioning in May 1940.

During 14 months of functioning Ukrainian Bureau in Washington posted dozens of informational bulletins and send it to hundreds of addressees; E. Skotzko, as a director, personally wrote to American governmental institutions and foreign diplomats informing about Ukrainian problem in Europe. Ukrainian Bureau activity is an inspiring example for those who care for informational policy of modern Ukraine.Keywords: Ukrainian small encyclopedia, Yevhen Onatsky, journalism, worldview, Ukrainian state.

Keywords: Ukrainian Bureau in Washington, Eugene Skotzko, public opinion, history of journalism, diaspora.

Full text


References:

  1. Vidiishly vid nas (1996, June 11). Svoboda, p. 5 [in Ukr.].
  2. Virnyi M. Skromne slovo pro skromnoho veletnia. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 4, Folder 2. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  3. Zvit z diialnosti Ukrainskoho Biura v Vashynhtoni za chas… vid 24-ho bereznia 1939, azh do rozviazannia Komitetu Biura dnia 25-ho travnia, 1940 r. IHRC796 Alexander Granovsky papers, 1900‒2007, Box 138, Folder 7. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  4. Komunikat Ukrainskoho Biura u Vashynhtoni (1940, August 3). Svoboda, p. 3. [in Ukr.].
  5. Kuropas M. (2004). Ukrainsko-amerykanska tverdynia. Pershi sto rokiv Ukrainskoho narodnoho soiuzu. Ostroh; Chicago, 681 p. [in Ukr.].
  6. Lyst V. Kysilevskoho do Ye. Onatskoho. 21 bereznia 1931 r. IHRC1717 Evhen Onatsky papers, 1918‒1969, Box 34. Folder «Documents». Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  7. Lyst D. Andriievskoho do O. Hranovskoho. 21 sichnia 1940 r. IHRC796 Alexander Granovsky papers, 1900‒2007, Box 155, Folder 5. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  8. Lyst Ye. Onatskoho do O. Hranovskoho. 4 lystopada 1939 r. IHRC1717 Evhen Onatsky papers, 1918‒1969, Box 37, Folder «Correspondence». Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  9. Lyst Ye. Skotska do chleniv Rady Ukrainskoho Biura v Vashynhtoni. 26 liutoho 1940 r. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 4. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis.[in Ukr.].
  10. Lyst L. Myshuhy do Ye. Onatskoho. 14 lystopada 1939 r. IHRC1717 Evhen Onatsky papers, 1918‒1969, Box 34. Folder «Correspondence». Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  11. Lyst Ukrainskoho biuro v Londoni do Ye. Skotska. 21 kvitnia 1939 r. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 4, Folder 3. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  12. Lyst Ukrainskoho biuro v Londoni do Ye. Skotska. 14 lypnia 1939 r. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 3. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  13. Otvoreno Ukrainske Informatsiine Biuro v Vashynhtoni (1939, March 25). Svoboda, p. 1. [in Ukr.].
  14. Skotsko Ye. (1986) Na poklyk ridnoi zemli: Dopomoha ukrainskoi emihratsii v ZSA vyzvolnii dii OUN. New York, 208 p. [in Ukr.].
  15. Skotsko Ye. Na shliakhu z Yarchivtsiv. Frahmenty z mynuloho. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 4, Folder 3. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  16. Ukrainska Informatyvna Sluzhba. Ukrainske Biuro v Vashynhtoni. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 5. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  17. Ukrainske Biuro u Vashynhtoni. Povidomlennia. 25 bereznia 1938 r. IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 3. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Ukr.].
  18. Shapoval M. (1925). Stara i Nova Ukraina. Lysty v Ameryku. New York, 32 p. [in Ukr.].
  19. Brief Outline of History of Ukraine by Eugene Skotzko, IHRC796 Alexander Granovsky papers, 1900‒2007, Box 138, Folder 7. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Eng.].
  20. Dies Committee. Retrieved from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Dies_Committee/ [in Eng.].
  21. Eugene Skotzko Sr. Dies; Edited Labor Publication (1996, March 31). Washington Post, p. 9. [in Eng.].
  22. Granovsky A. (1940). Ukraine’s Case for Independence. World Affairs, No. 108. 25–34 pp. [in Eng.].
  23. Group Here Seeks To Make Ukraine Democratic State (1939, March 25). The Washington Post, p. 5. [in Eng.].
  24. Imported Caviar (1939, July 21). Washington Post, p. 6. [in Eng.].
  25. Letter of Skotzko E. to the editor of Washington Daily News. 20 March, 1940 IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 3.Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Eng.].
  26. Roberts Ch. (1940, March 18) Ukrainia’s Fight for Freedom Directed from Office Here. The Washington Daily News, p. 3. [in Eng.].
  27. Ukrainians Establish Publicity Bureau (1939, Match 24). The Evening Star (Washington D. C.), p. 3. [in Eng.].
  28. Ukraine’s «Autonomy» in U.S.S.R (1939, April 24). Bulletin of Ukrainian Bureau Washington D. C., p. 1. [in Eng.].
  29. Ukrainian Bureau in Washington. Letter to the Honorable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States, and the Ambassadors of Great Britain and France in Washington. 13 September. 1939 IHRC2935 Eugene Skotzko papers, 1931‒1936, Box 5, Folder 5. Immigration History Research Center Archives, Minneapolis. [in Eng.].
  30. Will Allies Invade Ukraine as Liberators (1939, March 11). Bulletin of Ukrainian Bureau Washington D.C., p. 3. [in Eng.].